A framework for integrating control methods against the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus in Australia.
Information from modelling and empirical studies on Boophilus microplus (Can.) in Australia was earlier used to produce guidelines to analyse field problems. The studies described in this paper focus on the use of research information to make practical recommendations. Management options are based on 3 phases in the life-cycle of the tick: the development of free-living stages, host-finding and feeding. Each option is explored under 3 climatic scenarios, representing average and extremely favourable or unfavourable years. Host resistance is taken as an essential basis for any integrated control approach. Selective breeding, culling animals with low resistance levels and supplementary feeding are discussed as possible ways to increase host resistance. Three approaches to dipping are compared: prophylactic dipping, dipping in response to economic thresholds, and opportunistic dipping. Situations are identified in which each approach is most appropriate. The reduction of the host-finding rate by changing host density or pasture spelling is discussed. Both techniques appear useful in particular situations. Combinations of available control methods are explored, and a procedure suggested for the analysis of practical extension problems.