Effects of elephant browsing on woodlands in a Tanzanian national park: measurements, models and management.
In selected woodlands in the Ruaha National Park, 40% of Acacia albida were dead, and 67% of Commiphora ugogensis had been killed in the previous 6 yr. Most deaths could be attributed to damage by Loxodonta africana. The size distribution of both tree species indicated a lack of regeneration. The proportion of A. albida killed by elephants increased with tree density, but that of C. ugogensis was independent of the tree density. Using this data and data from the literature [see e.g. FA 34, 4470], models were constructed to predict the effects of elephant culling on the density of C. ugogensis and of theoretical tree species showing 4 different mortality patterns, and the cost-effectiveness of various culling programmes.