Payment for ecosystem services (PES): assessment of PES potential in Kapuas Hulu.
The objectives of the present study were to determine the feasibility of payment for ecosystem services (PES) projects in the Kapuas Hulu regency, West Kalimantan, to assess whether there is potential for PES at the study sites and, if so, identify the opportunities, constraints, risks, risk mitigation and needed steps for future actions. Interviews were conducted with the national park office, regency forestry office, an oil palm plantation company, a water company, NGOs and local communities, exploring the wider potential for PES projects in Kapuas Hulu. The assessment focused predominantly on the socioeconomic, institutional and governance aspects, and so the findings can be applied to any PES project, beyond carbon sequestration alone. The results show that potential for PES in Kapuas Hulu range from carbon projects to PES bundles in the five locations that were assessed. The hamlet of Keluin and village of Nanga Dua are examples of potential for PES bundles that improve biodiversity through land rehabilitation and could be bundled with carbon stock and micro hydro projects. In Tinting Seligi, where an oil palm plantation has been operated, a carbon project from rubber production could be one of the PES options. In addition, in the hamlets of Nanga Hovat and Benua Tengah, there is the potential for carbon storage and sequestration projects, and the beauty of the landscape could provide a basis for ecotourism.