Integrated conservation of bee pollinators of a rare plant in a protected area near Bologna, Italy.
An integrated approach was proposed for the conservation of the bee pollinators of the locally rare plant dittany Dictamnus albus. Based on previous studies that revealed the most efficient pollinators, we performed three related actions to improve their presence in the area: (i) we provided artificial nests for bumblebees and solitary bees; (ii) we added bee plants to support local populations of pollinators throughout their life cycle, and (iii) we reared and released bumblebee colonies from wild queens collected in the area. Artificial nests were occupied at high rates by cavity nesting species such as mason bees, leafcutter bees and carpenter bees, while we did not observe any ground nesting bees. Artificial nests for bumblebees did not attract any wild queens. The bee plants established at different rates: transplanted adult individuals survived better than seeds directly sown at the site. In three consecutive years we reared and released several colonies of buff-tailed bumblebees, which survived through the flowering season but only one developed new gynes.