Biology and biological control of dalmatian and yellow toadflax.

Published online
02 Jan 2019
Content type

Sing, S. E. & Clerck-Floate, R. A. de & Hansen, R. W. & Pearce, H. & Randall, C. B. & Toševski, I. & Ward, S. M.
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Publication language
North America


This manual provides information on the biology and ecology of Dalmatian toadflax (Linaria dalmatica [Linaria genistifolia subsp. dalmatica]), yellow toadflax (Linaria vulgaris), their hybrids, and toadflax biological control agents (BCAs). It also presents guidelines to establish and manage BCAs as part of an integrated toadflax management programme. Chapter 1 provides introductory information on toadflaxes (including their distribution, habitat, and economic impact) and classical biological control. Chapter 2 provides detailed descriptions of the taxonomy, growth characteristics and features, invaded habitats, and occurrence of Dalmatian toadflax, yellow toadflax, and their hybrids in North America. It also describes how to differentiate toadflaxes from look-alike species. Chapter 3 describes BCAs of toadflaxes, including details on each agent's native range, original source of releases in North America, part(s) of toadflax plants attacked, life cycle, description, host specificity, known nontarget effects, habitat preferences, and availability. This chapter is particularly useful for identifying BCAs in the field. Chapter 4 includes detailed information and guidelines on how to plan, implement, monitor, and evaluate an effective toadflax biological control programme. Included are guidelines and methods for: (i) selecting and preparing BCA release sites, (ii) collecting, handling, transporting, shipping, and releasing BCAs, and (iii) monitoring BCAs and vegetation. Chapter 5 discusses the role of biological control in the context of an integrated toadflax management programme.

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