Urban greening factor for England - development and technical analysis: green infrastructure framework - principles and standards for England.

Published online
23 Feb 2023
Published by
Natural England
Content type

Neal, P.

Publication language
England & UK


This report on Developing a Model Urban Greening Factor for England introduces the Urban Greening Factor (UGF) and provides an analysis of current applications of the UGF in the UK and abroad. Proposals for a Model UGF Standard for England include both target scores for specific land uses and a set of weighted surface cover types. These have been developed from detailed research on international UGF applications through their initial development in Europe to current UK planning policy and practice. This report sets out the concise sets of proposed UGF Target Scores and UGF Surface Cover Types for the Model UGF for England, and the rationale behind them. The Target Scores for Surface Cover Types comprise a familiar suite of green infrastructure elements including - vegetation and tree planting; green roofs and walls; sustainable drainage systems and water features; and paved surfaces. The report concludes with a schedule of UGF policies that are currently used in UK planning practice.

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