Anthracite mining spoils in Pennsylvania. I. Spoil classification and plant cover studies.
Proposed classification types are black acidic shales, weakly calcareous grey shales, buff sandstones, oxidized surface spoils and surfacial spoils. Most materials were fit for the growth of higher plants without ameliorative treatment or plant succession. Most spoils could support trees through to maturity. The classification proved valid in terms of plant growth.