Patterns of shoot and root growth in rice seedlings germinating under water.
Rice cv. Calrose was germinated under water with or without an oil overlay to impede gas exchange. The shoot was the first and most prominent structure to emerge. Seedlings germinated in the light which did not become green while completely submerged, and those germinated in the dark which did not emerge above the water surface, did not manifest either normal root growth or normal vertical shoot growth. Inhibition of normal root growth was reversed when seedlings were transferred to conditions favouring normal shoot development.