Birch control on lowland heaths: mechanical control and the application of selective herbicides by foliar spray.
The effects of mechanical control methods and foliar sprays of fosamine ammonium, 2,4,5-T and triclopyr, singly or in combination, were assessed on Betula pendula, B. pubescens and a non-target sp. Calluna vulgaris. Cutting was less successful than pulling, due to regeneration from cut stumps. The mechanical treatments increased regeneration of Calluna seedlings in the understorey. All 3 herbicides improved control when applied to birch scrub or to regrowth after cutting. Triclopyr reduced the number of birch and Calluna seedlings; fosamine ammonium and 2,4,5-T damaged or killed some Calluna plants while birch seedlings were unaffected.