The role of research for integrated management of invasive species, invaded landscapes and communities.
Invaded landscapes and ecosystems are composed of multiple interacting networks and feed-back loops, sometimes leading to unexpected effects of management actions. In order to plan management for invaded systems we need to explicitly consider management goals before putting actions in place. Actions taken must be justified in terms of their amelioration of impacts of invaders, contribution to the management goals and the costs incurred. This Special Profile brings together papers on the management of invasive plants, transgenes, animals and diseases, leading to conclusions with clear policy and management relevance and contributing to some of the hottest current topics in invasion ecology: unexpected impacts of invaders, restoration of invasion resistance, distribution mapping, spatial epidemiology, escape of transgenes, community interactions and complex effects of management. As papers in this Special Profile demonstrate, management for amelioration of the impacts of invasive species will include a wide range of manipulations, not just of the invader itself but of both abiotic and biotic components of the system. In fact, several papers in this Special Profile show that indirect management of the community may be more effective than removal of the invader alone. As little information is generally available at the beginning of a management programme, an adaptive approach should be taken and the management objectives/goals revised throughout the management process. New methods are emerging for adaptive management; an example is presented in this Special Profile where a Bayesian model used for assessing eradication goals can be updated throughout the management process leading to refinement of management. Synthesis and applications. Applied research should be directed at providing decision support for managers throughout the management process and can be used to provide predictive tools for risk assessment of new invaders. The science of invasion ecology has much to contribute to the new challenge of natural or enhanced movement of organisms in relation to climate change. Methods and information from invasion ecology can be used to assess management goals, management actions and the risks of potential translocations before they are put in place.