The potential of parasitoid Hymenoptera as bioindicators of arthropod diversity in agricultural grasslands.
As measuring biodiversity in its entirety is impractical, there is a need for bioindicators. This study tested the hypothesis that parasitoid Hymenoptera are potential bioindicators that provide a useful means to assess the wider biodiversity of arthropod populations in agro-ecosystems. There are a range of theoretical arguments to support such a claim, including the high trophic position of these taxa within the arthropod communities in which they occur, and the unique nature of their biological relationships with the majority of terrestrial arthropod groups. A survey of 48 commercial farms was conducted and Generalized Linear Models used to investigate relationships between six taxa - parasitoid Hymenoptera, Coleoptera, Hemiptera, Diptera, Araneae and plants (species richness and sward height) - in agricultural grasslands. As well as relationships between these groups, the relationship of each individual group to the overall biodiversity of all other arthropod groups was explored. Both abundance (r2=0.58) and taxon richness (r2=0.54) of parasitoid Hymenoptera had stronger relationships with overall arthropod taxon richness than any other arthropod group investigated. Parasitoid abundance also had a positive relationship with species richness of Coleoptera (r2=0.23) and Hemiptera (r2=0.47). 4. An historical data set demonstrated how the relationship between parasitoid abundance and overall arthropod taxon richness changes over the growing season. July, when the relationship was strongest, is potentially the most useful time to sample. For use in routine monitoring, it is important that an effort be made to understand the seasonal influence on the relationship in the context being studied. Equal sampling effort must be made for all sites being compared and sites should be sampled as close together in the season as is possible. Synthesis and applications. We show that, within agricultural grasslands, both the abundance and taxon richness of parasitoid Hymenoptera are more closely related with overall arthropod diversity than any other arthropod group investigated. The use of parasitoid abundance provides a simple and practicable monitoring tool for tracking change in wider arthropod diversity in agro-ecosystems.