Drivers of forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition.
In the context of this chapter, drivers are considered to be natural or anthropogenic developments affecting forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition. They can improve and contribute to food security and nutrition, but they can also lead to food insecurity and malnutrition. For analytical purposes, drivers are separated here into the following four interconnected categories: (i) environmental, (ii) social, (iii) economic and (iv) governance. When reviewing scientific findings twelve major drivers (i.e. population growth, urbanisation, governance shifts, climate change, commercialisation of agriculture, industrialisation of forest resources, gender imbalances, conflicts, formalisation of tenure rights, rising food prices and increasing per capita income) were identified within these four categories. They affect food security and nutrition through land use and management; through consumption, income and livelihood; or through both. These drivers are interrelated and can have different consequences depending on the social structure; for example, they can support food security for elite groups but can increase the vulnerability of other groups.