Mainstreaming climate change adaptation into development planning.
This paper attempts to mainstream climate change adaptation planning into on-going agricultural development programmes in India. A primary survey conducted in the states of Punjab and Telangana explored the major impacts of climate change as perceived by farmers, the coping strategies adopted at farm household level, and the barriers to climate change adaptation. Different agriculture and rural development programmes implemented across various ministries were compiled and their budgetary allocations over a time period are analysed. For mainstreaming adaptation planning, the on-going development programmes were classified into six broad themes: productivity enhancement and production augmentation; rural livelihood security; natural resource management; risk financing; foodgrain management; and research and extension. Further, on the basis of the grass-root elicitation and identification of relevant developmental programmes, a 'need-based adaptation' planning incorporating farmers' perceptions on climate change impacts, constraints in the adoption of adaptation strategies and plausible adaptation options were linked with the most suitable on-going programmatic interventions of the Government. The paper concludes that grass-root needs and constraints for various adaptation strategies and interventions should be an integral part of the programme development and implementation. Moreover, rural developmental interventions are major drivers for enhancing the resilience of Indian agriculture and adaptive capacity of the vulnerable sections.