Reimagining conservation translocations through two-eyed seeing.
This Perspective, as Indigenous and non-Indigenous researchers and practitioners working in partnership under Te Tiriti o Waitangi (The Treaty of Waitangi, 1840), demonstrates how Two-Eyed Seeing can better inform conservation translocation decisions, such as whether, or how, different populations should be mixed. It presents a new global framework for re-imagining conservation translocations by centring Indigenous peoples and knowledge systems; and shows how this framework can be readily extended to local contexts. As a case study, it focuses on Aotearoa New Zealand's threatened and under-prioritized freshwater biodiversity. It reflects on Māori (Indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand) led or co-led restoration initiatives: Te Nohoaka o Tukiauau and Tūhaitara Coastal Park. In particular, it highlights the co-development of conservation translocations for culturally significant freshwater species in these wetlands as part of strategies to revitalize biocultural diversity-including customary practices, processes and associated language-for future generations. By bringing together Western science and Indigenous knowledge, practices and processes through Two-Eyed Seeing, Indigenous-led or co-led approaches can enable more nuanced conservation translocation decisions and build more resilient biocultural heritage.