Flower strips, organic management or small-scale farming: which benefits pollinator abundance, richness and reproduction most?
This paper presents the results of studies conducted to evaluate the effects of landscape-scale mean arable field size and local management (flower strip, organic and conventional agriculture) on pollinator richness, abundance, reproduction and on their flower resources in order to understand which management actions are needed to enhance pollinator presence in agricultural landscapes. It was shown that management actions both at the landscape and at the local scale were important to increase pollinator richness and abundance. Organic farming provided more flowers overall per field than narrow flower strips. However, bees and hoverflies cannot be protected only by improving conditions at one field, they all depend on the structure of the surrounding landscape. Landscapes including small agricultural fields and large organic fields interspersed with semi-natural areas, are the foundation of heterogenous and well-connected landscapes, which are essential for pollinators.