Stable or shifting visions? In search of nature and social bonds during the pandemic.
This case study emphasizes the need for adaptive park management plans to cope with major system shocks. Inclusivity of stakeholder observations and knowledge is also critical for strengthening response to certain drivers, such as the use of local knowledge on controlled grazing practices to reduce fuel loads and manage the risk of wildfires. Given that stakeholder values were relatively stable during the pandemic, our case study suggests that management plans integrating stakeholder values have the potential to stay relevant even in the face unexpected events. And while envisioning processes and scenario planning methodologies can be useful, we need to more strongly consider how drivers of change in the near and far future can be affected by wildcard events such as a pandemic.