Urban Greening Factor for England - Summary Report: Green Infrastructure Framework - Principles and Standards for England.

Published online
14 Mar 2023
Published by
Natural England
Content type

Neal, P.

Publication language
England & UK


This Summary Report provides an overview of the research commissioned by Natural England and Defra to inform the development of the Model Urban Greening Factor for England. It summarises the early development and evolution of the Urban Greening Factor and how it is now applied through planning policy and practice. This process of application is illustrated through a set of five current case studies: Southampton City Council, London Borough of Sutton, City of London, Greater London Authority, and Swansea Council. The Report introduces the structure and content of a Model Urban Greening Factor (UGF) for England and its role within the Green Infrastructure Framework. There are two main components of the UGF: (a) a target factor score that sets a minimum proportion or percentage of greening for a particular site, area or land use; and, (b) a schedule of weighted surface cover types that are used to calculate the score. The resulting score is then compared with the target UGF score for the development site set by the planning policy and the score indicates whether the urban greening proposals achieve, exceed, or fail to meet the defined target score. Proposals for a Model UGF Standard for England include both target scores for specific land uses and a set of weighted surface cover types. The Report concludes by setting out the benefits of the use of the UGF for England, for the delivery of green infrastructure through the development planning process.

Key words