Definition of Favourable Conservation Status for kittiwake.

Published online
10 Aug 2023
Published by
Natural England
Content type

Mousley, S. & Kershaw, M.

Publication language
England & UK


This document sets out Natural England's view on favourable conservation status for kittiwake in England. Favourable conservation status is the situation when the species can be regarded as thriving in England and expected to continue to thrive sustainably in the future. The definition is based on the available evidence on the ecology of kittiwake. Favourable conservation status is defined in terms of three parameters: natural range and distribution; population; extent and quality of habitat necessary for long-term maintenance of populations. A summary definition of favourable conservation status in England follows. Section 1 of this document describes the species and its ecosystem context, Section 2 the units used to define favourable conservation status and Section 3 describes the evidence considered when defining favourable conservation status for each of the three parameters. Section 4 sets out the conclusions on favourable values for each of the three parameters. This document does not include any action planning, or describe actions, to achieve or maintain favourable conservation status. These will be presented separately, for example within strategy documents.

Key words