Restore or rewild? Implementing complementary approaches to bend the curve on biodiversity loss.
Restoration and rewilding are both relevant conservation approaches to addressing the current nature, health and climate crises. Here, we discuss the benefits of integrating restoration and rewilding in conservation projects. We highlight how such integration could increase the amount of space available for nature recovery; boost knowledge exchange and raise nature recovery ambitions; enhance landscape heterogeneity and dynamics and improve large-scale connectivity. In particular, the two approaches may be deployed to exploit synergisms. We argue that developing a portfolio of integrated approaches that capitalise on the strengths of both restoration and rewilding and target different scales and socio-ecological contexts is the best way to jointly address the biodiversity and climate crises. We call for major policy platforms and international funding agencies to support the emergence of infrastructures and frameworks that facilitate the coordination and integration of the restoration and rewilding agendas. Such a step would benefit biodiversity and support broader efforts to integrate different conservation strategies into whole landscape approaches.